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However, because messages may be lost or dropped, the Access Point (AP) will retransmit message 3 if it did not receive an appropriate response as acknowledgment.
For an attacker this is easy to accomplish, because our key reinstallation attack is exceptionally devastating against Linux and Android 6.0 or higher.Note that if your device supports Wi-Fi, it is most likely affected.During our initial research, we discovered ourselves that Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, Open BSD, Media Tek, Linksys, and others, are all affected by some variant of the attacks.When the victim reinstalls the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number (i.e. Unfortunately, we found this is not guaranteed by the WPA2 protocol.By manipulating cryptographic handshakes, we can abuse this weakness in practice.This handshake is executed when a client wants to join a protected Wi-Fi network, and is used to confirm that both the client and access point possess the correct credentials (e.g. At the same time, the 4-way handshake also negotiates a fresh encryption key that will be used to encrypt all subsequent traffic.
Currently, all modern protected Wi-Fi networks use the 4-way handshake.
By forcing nonce reuse in this manner, the encryption protocol can be attacked, e.g., packets can be replayed, decrypted, and/or forged.
The same technique can also be used to attack the group key, Peer Key, TDLS, and fast BSS transition handshake.
For example, HTTPS was previously bypassed in non-browser software, in Apple's i OS and OS X, in Android apps, in Android apps again, in banking apps, and even in VPN apps.
Our main attack is against the 4-way handshake of the WPA2 protocol.
In any case, the following demonstration highlights the type of information that an attacker can obtain when performing key reinstallation attacks against protected Wi-Fi networks: Our attack is not limited to recovering login credentials (i.e. In general, any data or information that the victim transmits can be decrypted.